- Knee Pain
Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life.
- Knee Sprain
Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range, causing the ligaments to tear.
- Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation
Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella moves out of the patellofemoral groove, (trochlea) onto the bony head of the femur.
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone).
- Meniscal Tears
A meniscal tear is a common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear.
- Patellar Instability
Any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place.
- Chondromalacia Patella
Chondromalacia patella is a common condition characterized by softening, weakening and damage of the cartilage. The condition is most often seen in young athletes and older adults who have arthritis of the knee. It especially occurs in women.
- Jumper's Knee
Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendinitis, is inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in the extension of the lower leg.
- Kneecap Bursitis
Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa. Inflammation of the bursa in front of the kneecap (patella) is known as kneecap bursitis or prepatellar bursitis.
- Baker's Cyst
The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid, which reduces the friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess, resulting in its accumulation in the back of your knee.
- Iliotibial Band Syndrome
An iliotibial band is a tough group of fibers that runs from the iliac crest of the hip along the outside of the thigh, till the outer side of the shinbone, just below the knee joint.
- Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome
Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.
- Fractures of the Tibia
The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones. It bears most of the body’s weight and helps form the ankle joint and knee joint.
- Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply.
- Pediatric ACL Tears
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that provides stability, reduces stress and prevents the knee from rotating or slipping out of position while jumping, running and landing.
- Shin Splints
Shin splints are pain and inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue along the tibia or shinbone (lower leg). It occurs because of vigorous physical activities such as exercise or sports.
- Knee Injury
Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee. If care is not taken during the initial phases of injury, it may lead to joint damage, which may end up destroying your knee.
- Unstable Knee
The knee joint is one of the largest joints in the body.
- Goosefoot Bursitis of the Knee
A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac found between soft tissues and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion, decreasing the friction between bones when they move. Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa.
- MCL Tears
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee.
- MCL Sprains
Your MCL may get sprained or injured while twisting, bending or quickly changing direction.
- Meniscal Injuries
Meniscal tears are among the commonest injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age but are more common in athletes involved in contact sports.
- Fractures of the Patella
The patella may break into two pieces or several pieces depending on the nature of the injury. Any part of the patella may be involved.
- Ligament Injuries
Knee problems may arise if any of these structures get injured by overuse or suddenly during sports activities.
- Multiligament Knee Injuries
Injury to more than one knee ligament is called a multiligament knee injury and may occur during sports or other physical activities.
- Multiligament Instability
The knee is a complex joint of the body that is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL).
- Knee Arthritis
The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint. Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out.
- PCL Injuries
PCL injuries are very rare and more difficult to detect than other knee ligament injuries. Cartilage injuries, bone bruises, and ligament injuries often occur in combination with PCL injuries.
- Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects
The articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of your body during activities such as running and jumping.
- Patellofemoral Instability
Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.
- Patella Fracture
The kneecap or patella forms a part of the knee joint. It is present at the front of the knee, protecting the knee and providing attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg.
- Recurrent Patella Dislocation
The patella (kneecap) is a small bone that shields your knee joint. It is present in front of your knee, on a groove called the trochlear groove that sits at the junction of the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone).
- Quadriceps Tendon Rupture
The quadriceps can rupture after a fall, direct blow to the leg and when you land on your leg awkwardly from a jump. Quadriceps tendon rupture most commonly occurs in middle-aged people who participate in sports that involve jumping and running.
- Patellar Tendon Rupture
The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out.
- Lateral Meniscus Syndrome
Lateral meniscus syndrome is characterized by an injury caused by the tearing of the cartilage tissue or a rare case of a congenital abnormality called a discoid meniscus, which results in knee pain.
- Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion Fracture
Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is the avulsion (tearing away) of the tibial eminence.
- Posterolateral Instability
Posterolateral instability, also known as posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI), is a common pattern of knee instability that results from injuries to the structures that support the outside of the knee joint, the posterolateral corner.
- Osteonecrosis of the Knee
Osteonecrosis is a condition in which the death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women.
- Knee Angular Deformities
Angular deformities of the knee are variations in the normal growth pattern during early childhood and are common during childhood.
- Osteochondral Defect of the Knee
An osteochondral defect, also commonly known as osteochondritis dissecans, of the knee refers to a damage or injury to the smooth articular cartilage surrounding the knee joint and the bone underneath the cartilage.
- Medial Gastrocnemius Strain
A medial gastrocnemius strain (MGS), also sometimes called “tennis leg”, is an injury to the calf muscle in the back of the leg. It occurs when the calf muscle is stretched too far resulting in a partial or total tear or rupture within the muscle.
- Articular Cartilage Injury
Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.
- Loose Bodies in the Knee
Loose bodies are fragments of detached cartilage or bone inside the knee joint. These fragments may be free floating (unstable) or may be trapped (stable) within the joint.
- Knee Fracture
A fracture is a condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused by high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people, the most common cause is a weak and fragile bone.
- Knee Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).In a person with osteoarthritis, the cartilage becomes damaged and worn out causing pain, swelling, stiffness and restricted movement in the affected joint.
- Knee Sports Injuries
Trauma is any injury caused during physical activity, motor vehicle accidents, electric shock, or other activities. Sports trauma or sports injuries refer to injuries caused while playing indoor or outdoor sports and exercising.
- Patellar Tendinitis
Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee", is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.
- Pediatric Tibial Tubercle Fractures
Tibial tubercle fractures are quite rare occurrences that typically affect physically active adolescents between the age of 14 and 17. It is caused by violent tensile forces exerted over the tibial tuberosity (a bulge in the tibial bone) during activities involving sudden contraction of the knee extensors (springing and jumping).
- Women and ACL Injuries
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the common injuries of the knee.
- Medial Meniscus Syndrome
Medial meniscal injuries are usually considered as either traumatic or degenerative. Whilst degenerate tears may present with a gradual history of increasing symptoms, traumatic injuries will usually occur as the knee is extended and rotated from a flexed position against resistance.
- Adolescent Knee Problems
Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition in older children and teenagers caused by excessive stress to the patellar tendon (located below the kneecap).
- Anterior Knee Pain
Anterior knee pain is characterized by chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals.
- Runner's Knee
Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is associated with a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella.
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease
Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to an overuse injury that occurs in the knee of growing children and adolescents. This is caused by inflammation of the tendon located below the kneecap (patellar tendon).